[P]articipants felt they were ‘locked-in' to unsustainable consumption patterns and consumerism. As a 48 year-old retailer said:
Carme (48): We are in the consumer society and we have been told that spending is good and since it is good we have to spend. Many times you find yourself in the shop and you do not know why.[...] The longing for simplicity and subsistence is reflected in the following conversation between young participants.
Marcel (22): In a subsistence society you kill the hen because you are hungry...
But, according to Guillen-Royo, people - and "particularly the rich" - instead choose complexity, ecological imbalance, high consumption, materialist values, extra income and globalization, apparently because they are told to do so. Guillen-Royo does not clearly identify who tells people - particularly the rich - how to behave, but she hints at employers, marketers, corporate and media decision-makers, and economic and political authorities.
So, according to Guillen-Royo, people think that a more modest lifestyle would improve their well-being, keep telling each other - particularly the rich - not to pursue such lifestyle, and keep doing what other people tell them to do instead of what they think they should do.
I have an alternative interpretation. Saying certain things is great and cheap entertainment - just another harmless act of consumption. Good places to engage in cheap talk are bars, religious gatherings and sustainability workshops.